List of Figures


TornImage: looking through literature

These are some books and articles related to historical tornadoes or tornado surveys \ climatologies. Most of them I’ve either read or at least looked through; those I could not find are marked as such.



[Milford 1996] R.V. Milford, A.M. Goliger. High intensity local winds due to severe thunderstorm events. Internal Report BE123, Materials & Structures Programme, Boutek, CSIR, February 1996. [could not find]

[Goliger 1998] A.M. Goliger, R.V. Milford. A review of worldwide occurrence of tornadoes. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Volumes 74-76, 1 April 1998, Pages 111-121. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research in South Africa

[Dotzek 2003] Nikolai Dotzek, Jürgen Grieser, Harold E. Brooks, Statistical modeling of tornado intensity distributions. Atmospheric Research, Volumes 67-68, July-September 2003, Pages 163-187 (European Conference on Severe Storms 2002). google scholar [2read]

[Brooks 2003] Harold E. Brooks, James W. Lee, Jeffrey P. Craven. The spatial distribution of severe thunderstorm and tornado environments from global reanalysis data. Atmospheric Research, Volumes 67-68, July-September 2003, Pages 73-94 (European Conference on Severe Storms 2002). google scholar [2read]

[Brooks 2004] Harold E. Brooks, Estimating the Distribution of Severe Thunderstorms and Their Environments Around the World. Preprints,. International Conf. on Storms, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. NOAA [2read]


[Dotzek 2003] Nikolai Dotzek, An updated estimate of tornado occurrence in Europe, Atmospheric Research, Volumes 67-68, July-September 2003, Pages 153-161 (European Conference on Severe Storms 2002). TorDACH [2read]

[Dotzek 2010] Nikolai Dotzek, Stefan Emeis, Christiana Lefebvre, Jürgen Gerpott, Waterspouts over the North and Baltic Seas: Observations and climatology, prediction and reporting. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, Volume 19, Number 1, February 2010, pp. 115-129(15). google scholar [2read]


[Holzer 2001] A.M. Holzer, Tornado climatology of Austria. Atmospheric Research, Volume 56, Issues 1-4, January 2001, Pages 203-211. TorDACH [2read]

Czech Republic

[Munzar 1994] Jan Munzar, 1994. Tromby (tornáda) na území České republiky v letech 1119–1993. Zborník dejín fyziky, vol. XI, pp. 69–72. {{ in Czech }} Czech Hydrometeorological Institute

[Dobrovolný 2003] Petr Dobrovolný, Rudolf Brázdil. Documentary evidence on strong winds related to convective storms in the Czech Republic since AD 1500, Atmospheric Research, v. 67-68, July-September 2003, pp. 95-116. Elsevier

[Setvák 2003] Martin Setvák, Milan Šálek, Jan Munzar, Tornadoes within the Czech Republic: from early medieval chronicles to the internet society, Atmospheric Research, v. 67-68, 2003, pp. 589-605. google scholar

[Lacinová 2007] Martina Lacinová, Jan Munzar, Marek Franc, Newly identified historical tornadoes in the Czech Republic from 16th to the 20th centuries, Atmospheric Research, Volume 83, Issues 2-4, February 2007, Pages 488-492. Elsevier


[Merilain 2003] M. Merilain, H.Toomin, Dramatic days in Estonia. Weather, Volume 58, Issue 3, pages 119–125, March 2003. google scholar [2read]


[Teittinen 2006] Jenni Teittinen, 2006. A climatology of tornadoes in Finland. Preprints, 23rd Conference on Severe Local Storms, St Louis. Amer. Meteor. Soc. American Meteorological Society [2read]


[Dessens 1989] Jean Dessens, John T. Snow, Tornadoes in France. Weather and Forecasting, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 1989). American Meteorological Society [2read]

[Paul 2001] François Paul, A developing inventory of tornadoes in France. Atmospheric Research, Volume 56, Issues 1-4, January 2001, Pages 269-280. Elsevier [2read]


[Nastos 2010] P.T. Nastos, J.T. Matsangouras, 2010. Tornado activity in Greece within the 20th century. Advances in Geosciences, Volume 26, 2010, pp.49-51. google scholar [2read]


[Peterson 1998] R. E. Peterson, A historical review of tornadoes in Italy. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Volumes 74-76, 1 April 1998, Pages 123-130 Elsevier.

[Gianfreda 2005] F. Gianfreda, M. M. Miglietta, P. Sansò, 2005. Tornadoes in Southern Apulia (Italy). Natural Hazards, Volume 34, Number 1, 71-89. Springer [2read]

[Giaiotti 2007] Dario B. Giaiotti, Mauro Giovannoni, Arturo Pucillo, Fulvio Stel. The climatology of tornadoes and waterspouts in Italy. Atmospheric Research, Volume 83, Issues 2-4, February 2007, Pages 534-541 (European Conference on Severe Storms 2004) google scholar [2read]


[Antonescu 2007] Bogdan Antonescu, Aurora Stan-Sion. Tornadic Environment in Romania. 4th European Conference on Severe Storms. European Severe Storms Laboratory [2read]


[Gayà 2001] M. Gayà, V. Homar, R. Romero, C. Ramis, Tornadoes and waterspouts in the Balearic Islands: phenomena and environment characterization. Atmospheric Research, Volume 56, Issues 1-4, January 2001, Pages 253-267. google scholar [2read]

[Gayà 2011] Miquel Gayà, 2011. Tornadoes and severe storms in Spain. Atmospheric Research, to appear. Elsevier


[Lamb 1957] H.H. Lamb. Tornadoes in England, 21 May 1950, Geophys. Memoirs 99(1957) 1-38. [could not find]

[Meaden 1976] G.T. Meaden, Tornadoes in Britain: their intensities and distribution in space and time. J. Meteor. 1 (1976) 242-251. [could not find]

[Elsom 1982] D.M. Elsom, G.T. Meaden, 1982. Tornadoes in the United Kingdom. In: Preprints, 12th Conf. Severe Local Storms (San Antonio, TX, USA), Am. Meteor. Soc, Boston, MA, pp. 55–58. [could not find]


[Peterson 2000] R.E. Peterson, 2000. Tornadoes of the former Soviet Union. Preprints 20th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Orlando. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, pp. 138–141. [could not find]

North America


[Newark 1984] M.J. Newark, Canadian tornadoes, 1950-1979. Atmosphere-Ocean 22(3) (1984) 343-353. Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society [2read]


[Finley 1888] John Park Finley, The Tornadoes of Iowa for 51 Years, 1837-1887. J. H. Soulé, 1888. archive [2read]

South America

[Nascimento 2006] E.L. Nascimento, C.A. Doswell III, The Need for an Improved Documentation of Severe Thunderstorms and Tornadoes in South America. Symposium on the Challenges of Severe Convective Storms, 2006, Atlanta, EUA: American Meteorological Society. American Meteorological Society [2read]


[Schwarzkopf 1982] M.L. Altinger de Schwarzkopf, L.C. Rosso, 1982. Severe storms and tornadoes in Argentina. Preprints, 12th Conf. Severe Local Storms, San Antonio, Texas, USA, Amer. Meteorol., pp. 59–62. [could not find]

[Schwarzkopf 1993] M.L.A. de Schwarzkopf, L.C. Rosso, P. Sorichetti, Riesgo de tornados y corrientes descendentes en la Argentina. Presented at the Workshop of the Task Force on High Intensity Winds on Transmission Lines, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 19-23 April 1993. [could not find]


[Dyer 1994] R.C. Dyer, 1994. A review of tornado activity in Brazil. Proceedings, Int. Soc. Photogramm. Remote Sens., INPE, São José dos Campos, Brazil, Vol. 30, Part 7a, 203-213. [could not find]


South Africa

[Milford 1994] R.V. Milford, A.M. Goliger, Tornado Activity in South Africa. Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineers, 36(1) (1994) 17-23. sabinet: 1, 2, 3 [2read]


India and Bangladesh

[Peterson 1981] R.E. Peterson, K.C. Mehta, 1981. Climatology of tornadoes of India and Bangladesh. Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol., Ser.B-29 345-356. Springer [2read]

[Peterson 1995] R.E. Peterson, K.C. Mehta, 1995. Tornadoes of the Indian subcontinent. 9th International Conference on Wind Engineering. Int. Assoc. of Wind Eng., New Delhi, India. [could not find]

[Finch 2001] Jonathan D. Finch, Tornados in Bangladesh and East India. National Weather Service. online [2read]

[Yamane 2006] Yusuke Yamane, Taiichi Hayashi. Evaluation of environmental conditions for the formation of severe local storms across the Indian subcontinent. Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 33, L17806. google scholar [2read]

[Hayashi 2009] Taiichi Hayashi, Yusuke Yamane. Meteorological Characteristics of Tornadoes in Bangladesh. International Forum on Tornado Disaster Risk Reduction for Bangladesh, 2009. International Association of Wind Engineering [2read]


[Niino 1997] Hiroshi Niino, Tokunosuke Fujitani, Nobuyuki Watanabe, A Statistical Study of Tornadoes and Waterspouts in Japan from 1961 to 1993. Journal of Climate, Volume 10, Issue 7 (July 1997). American Meteorological Society [2read]

Australia and Oceania


Individual Events



[Leighly 1974] John Leighly, An Early Drawing and Description of a Tornado, Isis, Vol. 65, No. 4 (Dec., 1974), pp. 474-486. jstor

Czech Republic

[Mendel 1871] Gregor Mendel. Die Windhose vom 13. October 1870. Verhandlungen des Naturforschenden Vereines in Brunn, 9, 229-245. [could not find]

  • [Nosek 1965] Miloš Nosek, Gregor Mendel – meteorolog. In “Gregor Mendel, zakladatel genetiky”, Brno, 1965. Mendel’s Museum
  • [Munzar 1981] Jan Munzar, 1981. Gregor Mendel — Meteorolog. Čs. Čas. Fyz., vol .A 31, pp. 63–67. {{ in Czech }}. Czech Hydrometeorological Institute
  • [Munzar 1998] Jan Munzar, 1998. Gregor Mendel and the tornado in Brno on 13th October, 1870. Moravian Geographical Reports, 6, 53-60. Moravian Geographical Reports

[Braun 1887] C. Braun, Windhose in Teplitz, Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 1887, volume 4, pp. 266-268 + Table VI, p. 272. archive

[Papežík 1903] J. Papežík, “Wolkenslauch”, Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 1903, p. 364. [could not find]


[Genzmer 1765] G.B. Genzmer, 1765, Umständliche und zuverläßge Beschreibung des Orcans welcher den 29. Jun. 1764 einen Strich von etlichen Meilen im Stargardischen Kreise des Herzogthums Mecklenburg gewaltig verwüstet hat. Friedrich Nicolai, Berlin und Stettin. TorDACH


[Dryfhout 1757] Jan Francois Dryfhout, Nauuwkeurige beschouwinge van een hoos, benevens een ondersoek, hoe dezelve geboren worden en werken. Verhandelingen uitgegeven door de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem, 1757, 3:321-377, Plts. I, II. google books


[Gayà 2007a] Miquel Gayà, The 1886 tornado of Madrid. Atmospheric Research, Volume 83, Issues 2-4, February 2007, Pages 201-210. Elsevier

[Gayà 2007b] Miquel Gayà, 2007. El tornado de Madrid del 12 de mayo de 1886. Online document. google scholar


strong>[Olmsted 1851] Alexander Fisher Olmsted, Whirlwinds produced by the Burning of a Cane-Brake. American Journal of Science and Arts, Series II, Volume XI, May 1851, pp. 181-187. google books 1, google books 2, archive

South America


[Velasco Fuentes 2010] Oscar Velasco Fuentes, The Earliest Documented Tornado in the Americas: Tlatelolco, August 1521, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Volume 91, Issue 11 (November 2010). American Meteorological Society


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